Induction of Off-Season Flowering in Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Cv. Balanagar

G. M. Vinay, R. Chithiraichelvan

Abstract


Pruning and defoliation are essential operations for inducing off-season flowering and fruiting to yield better quality and quantity of fruits in custard apple. Trees were subjected to two levels of pruning (25% and 50%) combined with use of chemical defoliants (urea 5%, Ethrel 2000ppm, potassium iodide 1%, or ortho-phosphoric acid 1%) besides the Control, with each treatment replicated thrice. Early initiation of flowering and better vegetative growth was seen in pruned (25%) and defoliated trees than in the Control or other treatments. Maximum off-season yield (10.33kg/ plant) was obtained in T4 (25% pruning, combined with 5% urea spray as defoliant) and T6 (25% pruning, combined with 1% potassium iodide-spray as defoliant). Findings of this investigation helped standardize pruning and defoliation practices on a scientific basis for off-season production of custard apple fruits.

Keywords


Pruning, Defoliation, Off-Season, Custard Apple, Urea.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bajwa, G.S., Sandhu, H.S. and Bal, J.S. 1986. Effect of pruning severity on growth and bearing of ber. Indian J. Hort., 43:203-206

Braswell, J. and Spiers, H.J.M. 2005. Effect of pruning on blueberry (Vaccinium ashei). Acta Hort., 574:3738

Bruno, R.M. and Evelyn, D.V. 2001. Effect of summer pruning and bark girdling on cherimoya var. Concha Lisa. Agri. Tech., 61:215-220

Demirtas, M.N., Bolat, I., Ercisli, S., Ikinci, A., Olmez, H.A., Sachin, M., Altindag, M. and Celik, M. 2010. The effects of different pruning treatments on the growth, fruit quality and yield of ‘Hacihaliloglu’ apricot. Acta Sci., 9:183-192

Dhaliwal, H.S., Banke, A.K., Sharma, L.K. and Bali, S.K. 2014. Impact of pruning practices on shoot growth and bud production in kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) plants. J. Exptl. Biol. Agril. Sci., 1:507513

Farre, J.M., Hermoso, J.M., Guriado, E. and Garcia, T.J. 2000. Techniques of cherimoya cultivation in Spain. Procs. First International Symposium on Cherimoya, Ecuador. C.F. Hort. Abstr., 70:3040

George, A.P. and Nissen, N.C. 1987. Effect of cincturing, defoliation and summer pruning on growth and flowering of custard apple (Annona cherimola x Annonas squamosa) in subtropical Queensland. Australian J. Exptl. Agri., 27:915-18

Guimond, C.M., Lang, G. and Andrews, P.K. 1998. Timing and severity of summer pruning affects flower initiation and shoot re-growth in sweet cherry. Hortl. Sci., 33:647-649

Kahn, T.L., Adams, C.J. and Arpaia, M.L. 2001. Effect of pruning and nitrogen fertilization on cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.). Sci. Hort., 64:25-30

Lal, H. and Prasad, A. 1971. Pruning in ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.): Effect on vegetative growth. Punjab Hort. J., 11:143-146

Lal, S. Tiwari, J.P. and Misra, K.K. 2000. Effect of plant spacing and pruning intensity on fruit yield and quality of guava. Prog. Hort., 32:20-25

Laura Soler and Julian Cuevas. 2008. Development of a new technique to produce winter cherimoyas. Hort. Tech., 18:24-28

Laura Soler and Julian Cuevas. 2009. Early flower initiation allows ample manipulation of flowering time in cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.). Sci. Hort., 121:327–332

Lord, W.J., Greene, D.W. and Damon, R.A. 1979. Flowering of young apple trees following summer pruning. J. Amer. Soc. Hortl. Sci., 104:540-44

Mohamed Elham and Fawzi. 2010. Effect of pruning, defoliation and nitrogen fertilization on growth, fruit set and quality of Abdel-Razik Annona cultivar. Nat. Sci., 8:281-287

Mohamed, S.M., Fayed, T.A., El-Shrief, H.M. and Mokhtar, O.S. 2011. Effect of heading, cut levels, bending and NAA on spurs formation, yield and fruit quality of Sun Gold plum cultivar. J. Hortl. Sci. Ornamen. Pl., 3:232-243

Naira, A. and Moieza, A. 2014. Summer pruning in fruit crops. African. J. Agril. Res., 9:206-210

Pandey, R.C., Pathak, R.A. and Singh, I.S. 1998. Effect of pruning intensity on vegetative and reproductive growth in ber (Ziziphus mauritiana). Indian J. Hort., 55:306-313

Sampath, K.P. and Jalikop, S.H. 2000. Cross-compatibility among Annona species. Indian J. Hort., 57:309313

Trevor Olesen and Steven. 2009. Branch development in custard apple (Cherimoya Annona cherimola Miller X Sugar apple Annona squamosa L.) in relation to tip-pruning and flowering, including effects on production. Trees, 23:855–862

Trevor Olesen and Steven. 2012. Effects of defoliation on flower development in atemoya custard apple (Annona cherimola Mill X A. squamosa L.) and implications for flower-development modelling. Australian J. Bot., 60:160–164






Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Horticultural Science