PGPR in Managing Root Rot Disease and Enhancing Growth in Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) Seedlings

B. N. Chakraborty, S. Allay, A. P. Chakraborty, U. Chakraborty

Abstract


Decline in general plant-health and fruit production in mandarin influenced by abiotic and biotic factors is a major threat to cultivars grown in Darjeeling and Sikkim hills. Fusarium root rot, caused by F. oxysporum, is one of the most serious diseases afflicted during early plant growth stage in Citrus. To address this, seven PGPR isolates - Pseudomonas poae (RMK03), Bacillus stratosphericus (RHS/CL-01), Ochrobactrum anthropi, Paenibacillus lentimorbus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were isolated from the rhizosphere of Citrus reticulata, C. limonia and Camellia sinensis, and used for evaluating their effect on growth of mandarin seedlings. Pseudomonas poae showed in vitro antagonism to Fusarium oxysporum. Better growth enhancement was noticed with P. poae, B. stratosphericus, O. anthropi and B. pumilus. Enhanced activity of chlorophyll, total protein, phenol, four major defense enzymeschitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase and phenyalanine ammonia lyase was observed upon application of PGPR. P. poae also suppressed root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Use of PGPR, which promote growth besides reducing disease severity to some extent, may lead to use of eco-friendly approaches for controlling plant diseases.

Keywords


PGPR, Mandarin, Root Rot, Citrus, Bacterial Isolates.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akhtar, M.S., Shakeel, U. and Siddiqui, Z.A. 2010. Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt by Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Rhizobium sp. on lentil. Tur. J. Biol., 34:1-7

Acharya, A., Chakraborty, U. and Chakraborty, B.N. 2013. Improvement of health status of Litsea monopetala using plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Int’l. J. Bio-res. Stress Mgt., 4:187-191

Asadhi, S., Reddy, B.V.B., Sivaprasad, Y., Prathyusha, M., Krishna, T.M., Kumar, K.V.K. and Reddy, K.R. 2013. Characterization, genetic diversity and antagonistic potential of 2,4- diacetylphloroglucinol producing Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates in groundnut-based cropping systems of Andhra Pradesh, India. Arch. Phytopathol. Pl. Protect., 46:1966-1977

Barassi, C.A., Ayrault, G., Creus, C.M., Sueldo, R.J. and Sobrero, M.T. 2006. Seed inoculation with Azospirillum mitigates NaCl effects on lettuce. Sci. Hortic., 109:8-14

Bhattacharya, M.K. and Ward, E.W.B. 1987. Biosynthesis and metabolism of glyceollin I in soybean hypocotyls following wounding or inoculation with Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea. Physiol. Mol. Pl. Pathol., 31:401-409

Boller, T. and Mauch, F. 1998. Colorimetric assay for chitinase. Methods in Enzymol., 161:430-435

Buchanan, R.E. and Gibbson, N.E. 1974. Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore (8th ed.), 1246 p.

Cao, Y., Zhang, Z., Ling, N., Yuan, Y., Zheng, X., Shen, B. and Shen, Q. 2011. Bacillus subtilis SQR 9 can control Fusarium wilt in cucumber by colonizing plant roots. Biol. Fertl. Soils., 47:495-506

Chabot, R., Antoun, H. and Cescas, M.P. 1996. Growth promotion of maize and lettuce by phosphate solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. Phaseoli. Pl. Soil, 184:311–321

Chakraborty, U. and Chakraborty, B.N. 1989. Interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum and Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi on pea affecting disease development and phytoalexin production. Can. J. Bot., 67:1698-1701

Chakraborty, U., Chakraborty, B.N. and Chakraborty, A.P. 2010. Influence of Serratia marcescens TRS-1 on growth promotion and induction of resistance in Camellia sinensis against Fomes lamaoensis. J. Pl. Interact., 5:261-272

Chakraborty, U., Chakraborty, B.N. and Kapoor, M. 1993. Changes in the levels of peroxidase and phenyl alanine ammonia lyase in Brassica napus cultivars showing variable resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans. Folia Microbiologica, 38:491-496

Chakraborty, U., Chakraborty, B.N., Allay, S., De, U. and Chakraborty, A.P. 2011. Dual application of Bacillus pumilus and Glomus mosseae for improvement of health status of mandarin plants. Acta Hort., 892:215-229

Chakraborty, U., Chakraborty, B.N. and Basnet, M. 2006. Plant growth promotion and induction of resistance in Camellia sinensis by Bacillus megaterium. J. Basic Microbiol., 46:186-195

Chakraborty, U., Chakraborty, B.N., Basnet, M. and Chakraborty, A.P. 2009. Evaluation of Ochrobactrum anthropi TRS-2 and its talc based formulation for enhancement of growth of tea plants and management of brown root rot disease. J. Appl. Microbiol., 107:625-634

Chakraborty, U., Chakraborty, B.N., Chakraborty, A.P., Sunar, K. and Dey, P.L. 2013. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria mediated improvement of health status of tea plants. Indian J. Biotechnol., 12:20-31

Dakora, F.D. 2003. Defining new roles for plant and rhizobial molecules in sole and mixed plant cultures involving symbiotic legumes. New Phytologist, 158:39-49

Dobbelaere, S., Croonenberghs, A., Thys, A., Vande Broek, A. and Vanderleyden, J. 1999. Photostimulatory effects of Azospirillum brasilense wild type and mutant strain altered in IAA production on wheat. Pl. Soil, 212:155-164

Esitken, A. 2011. Use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Horticultural Crops. In: Bacteria in Agrobiology: Crop Ecosystems. D.K. Maheshwari (ed.), pp. 189-235

Glick, B.R. 1995. The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol., 41:109-117

Han, H.S. and Lee, K.D. 2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria effect on antioxidant status, photosynthesis, mineral uptake and growth of lettuce under soil salinity. Res. J. Agril. Biol. Sci., 1:210-215

Harborne, J.B. 1973. Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall Ltd, London. 278 p.

Jacobsen, C.S. 1997. Plant protection and rhizosphere colonization of barley by seed inoculated herbicide degrading Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia DBO1 (pRO101) in 2,4-D contaminated soil. Pl. Soil, 189:139-144

Karlidag, H., Esitken, A., Yildirim, E., Donmez, M.F. and Turan, M. 2011. Effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) on yield, growth, leaf water content, membrane permeability and ionic composition of strawberry under saline conditions. J. Pl. Nutr., 34:34-45

Lavania, M., Chauhan, P.S., Chauhan, S.V., Singh, H.B. and Nautiyal, C.S. 2006. Induction of plant defense enzymes and phenolics by treatment with plant growth promoting rhizobacterial Serratia marcescens NBRII213. Curr. Microbiol., 52:363-368

Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. 1951. Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193:265-275

Mahadevan, A. and Sridhar, R. 1982. Methods in Physiological Plant Pathology (2nd ed.), Sivakami Publications, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.

Marulanda-Aguirre, A., Azcon, R., Ruiz-Lozano, J.M. and Aroca, R. 2008. Differential effects of a Bacillus megaterium strain on Lactuca sativa plant growth depending on the origin of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus coinoculated: physiologic and biochemical traits. J. Pl. Growth Regul., 27:10-18

Mayak, S., Tirosh, T. and Glick, B.R. 2004. Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomatoes and peppers. Pl. Sci., 166:525-530

Mohamedy-El, R.S.R. and Ahmed, M.A. 2009. Effect of biofertilizers and humic acid on control of dry root rot disease and improvement yield quality of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.). Res. J. Agril. Biol. Sci., 5:127-137

Nemec, S., Datnoff, L.E. and Strandbery, T. 1996. Efficacy of biocontrol agents in planting mixes to colonize plant root and control root diseases of vegetables and citrus. Crop Protect., 15:735743

Nelson, L.M. 2004. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): prospects for new inoculants. Crop Mgt., doi:10.1094/CM-20040301-05-RV

Orhan, E., Esitken, A., Ercisli, S., Turan, M. and Sahin, F. 2006. Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, growth and nutrient contents in organically growing raspberry. Sci. Hortic., 111:38-43

Pan, S.Q., Ye, X.S. and Kue, J. 1991. A technique for detection of chitinase, β-1,3- glucanase and protein patterns after a single separation using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Phytopathol., 81:970-974

Pikovskaya, R.I. 1948. Mobilization of phosphorus in soil connection with the vital activity of some microbial species. Microbiologia, 17:362-370

Ramarathnam, R., Dilantha, F.W.G. and de Kievit, T. 2011. The role of antibiosis and induced systemic resistance, mediated by strains of Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Bacillus cereus and B. amyloliquefaciens, in controlling blackleg disease of canola. BioControl, 56:225-235

Schwyn, B. and Neiland, J.B. 1987. Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores. Anal. Biochem., 160:47-56

Stafford, W.H.L., Baker, G.C. and Brown, S.A. 2005. Environ. Microbiol., 7:1755-1768

Woitke, M., Junge, H. and Schnitzler, W.H. 2004. Bacillus subtilis as growth promotor in hydroponically grown tomatoes under saline conditions. Acta Hort., 659:363-369

Yanni, Y.G., Rizk, R.Y., Corich, V., Squartini, A., Ninke, K., Philip-Hollingsworth, S., Orgambide, G., de Bruijn, F., Stoltzfus, J., Buckley, D., Schmidt, T.M., Mateos, P.F., Ladha, J.K. and Dazzo, F.B. 1997. Natural endophytic association between Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and rice roots and assessment of its potential to promote rice growth. Pl. Soil, 194:99-114

Yildirim, E., Donmez, M.F. and Turan, M. 2008a. Use of bioinoculants in ameliorative effects on radish plants under salinity stress. J. Pl. Nutr., 31:20592074

Yildirim, E., Turan, M. and Donmez, M.F. 2008b. Mitigation of salt stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Romanian Biotechnol. Lett., 13:3933-3943

Yuan, J., Raza, W., Shen, Q. and Huang, Q. 2012. Antifungal activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 volatile compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 78:5942-5944

Ziedan, E.H.E. and Eman, S.H. 2002. Biological control of root rot disease on mandarin by antagonistic strain of Bacillus megatherium. Anna. Agril. Sci., 47:1021-1031